Fityk 1.3.1  User’s Manual¶
Introduction¶
Fityk is a program for nonlinear fitting of analytical functions (especially peakshaped) to data (usually experimental data).
To put it differently, it is primarily peak fitting software, but can handle other types of functions as well.
Apart from the actual fitting, the program helps with data processing and provides ergonomic graphical interface (and also command line interface and scripting API – but if the program is popular in some fields, it’s thanks to its graphical interface).
It is reportedly used in crystallography, chromatography, photoluminescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, to name but a few.
Fityk offers various nonlinear fitting methods, simple background subtraction and other manipulations to the dataset, easy placement of peaks and changing of peak parameters, support for analysis of series of datasets, automation of common tasks with scripts, and much more.
In simple cases, the program can be operated with mouse only. Let say that you want to model the data with multiple peaks or other function shapes. You select a builtin function type (such as Gaussian, Voigt, sigmoid, polynomial and dozens of others) place it with the mouse, place other functions and click a button to fit it.
But the program can also handle quite complex scenarios. You can define your own function types. You can specify sophisticated dependencies between parameters of the functions (say, peak widths given as a function of peak positions). You can fit multiple datasets together using common set of parameters. You can model zeroshift in your instrument or do more complicated refinement of the X scale. And you can automate all this work. If you don’t know how to handle your case, do not hesistate to ask on the users group or contact the author.
To download the latest version of the program or to contact the author visit fityk.nieto.pl.
Reference for academic papers: M. Wojdyr, J. Appl. Cryst. 43, 11261128 (2010) [reprint]
Open Source¶
Fityk is opensource (GPL2+). If you are interested, please find the source code at GitHub.
It uses a few open source projects:
 NLopt for several optional fitting methods
 one of the fitting methods uses MPFIT library (MINPACK1 Least Squares Fitting Library in C), which includes software developed by the University of Chicago, as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory.
 xylib library handles reading data files
 Lua interpreter is embedded for scripting
 and a few popular libraries and tools that make programming much easier: wxWidgets (GUI), Boost (misc), zlib (compression), readline (CLI), SWIG (bindings), Catch (testing).
About this manual¶
This manual is written in ReStructuredText.
All corrections and improvements are welcome.
Use the Show Source
link to get the source of the page, edit it
and send me either the modified version or a patch.
Alternatively, go to GitHub, open corresponding rst file, press Fork and edit this file button, do edits in your web browser and click Propose file change.
The following people have contributed to this manual (in chronological order): Marcin Wojdyr (maintainer), Stan Gierlotka, Jaap Folmer, Michael Richardson.
Getting Started¶
Graphical Interface¶
That’s how the GUI looks like:
The main plot can display data points, model that is to be fitted to the data and individual functions in the model. Use can configure what is displayed and how (through
or context menu).The helper plot shows how well the model fits the data. You may have one, two or no helper plots (
). By default, the plot shows the difference between the data and the model. It can also show weighted or cumulative difference, and a couple of other things.The helper plot is also handy for zooming – with left and middle mouse buttons. Selecting a horizontal span with the left button zooms into this span. The middle button goes back to the whole dataset (the same as in the toolbar).
The sidebar is for switching between datasets, inspecting functions, and for changing function parameters. It also provides quick access to a few properties of the main plot, such as the size of data points.
On the main plot, the meaning of the left and right mouse button depends on the current mouse mode. Mouse modes are switched using toolbar buttons:
 normal mode – the left button zooms in and the right button shows popup menu,
 datarange mode – for activating and deactivating data, i.e. for selecting regions of interest,
 baseline mode – manual baseline subtraction (in may never need it),
 addpeak mode – for placing peaks and other functions.
The status bar shows a hint what the mouse does in the current mode.
Finally, the input field and the output window provide alternative, consolelike way of interacting with the program. Also, the GUI operations that change the state of the program (data, model, nonvisual settings) are translated into textual commands and printed in the output window.
Note
To save configuration of the GUI (visible windows, colors, etc.) for next session use
.Minimal Example¶
Let us analyze a diffraction pattern of NaCl. Our goal is to determine the position of the center of the highest peak. It is needed for calculating the pressure under which the sample was measured, but this later detail in the processing is irrelevent for the time being.
The data file used in this example is distributed with the program and
can be found in the samples
directory.
Textual commands that correspond to performed operations are shown in this section in CLI boxes.
First load data from the nacl01.dat
file.
Select
from the menu (or from the toolbar) and choose the file.
CLI
@0 < nacl01.dat
You can zoomin to the biggest peak using the left mouse button on the residual (helper) plot. To zoom out, press on the toolbar.
Now all data points are active. Only the biggest peak is of our interest, so we want to deactivate the remaining points. Change to the range mode (toolbar: ) and deactivate not needed points with the right mouse button.
CLI
A = (x > 23.0 and x < 26.0)
As our example data has no background to worry about, our next step is
to define a peak with reasonable initial values and fit it to the data.
We will use Gaussian.
To see its formula, type: info Gaussian
(or i Gaussian
) or look for it
in the section BuiltIn Functions.
Select Gaussian from the list of functions on the toolbar and press .
CLI
guess Gaussian
Automatic peak detection works in this case, but if it wouldn’t, you may set the initial peak position, height and width manually. Either with mouse in the addpeak mode, or with a command.
CLI
F += Gaussian(~60000, ~24.6, ~0.2)
Parameters of an existing function can be changed in the sideber, or by dragging that little square handle attached to each function (you should see a handle at the top of your Gaussian).
If the peaks/functions are not named explicitely (like in this example),
they get automatic names %_1
, %_2
, etc.
Now let us fit the function. Select
from the menu or press .CLI
fit
Important
Fitting minimizes the weighted sum of squared residuals (see Nonlinear Optimization). The default weights of points are not equal.
Now you can check the peak position together with other parameters on the sidebar. Alternatively, right click the peak handle and select
from the context menu.CLI
info prop %_1
That’s it!
By the way, you can save all the issued commands to a file (
)CLI
info history > myscript.fit
and later use it as a macro (
).CLI
exec myscript.fit
Command Line¶
Fityk comes with a small domainspecific language (DSL). All operations in Fityk are driven by commands of this language. Commands can be typed in the input box in the GUI, but if all you want to do is to type commands, the program has a separate CLI version (cfityk) for this.
Do not worry
you do not need to learn these commands. It is possible to use menus and dialogs in the GUI and completely avoid typing commands.
When you use the GUI and perform an action using the menu, you can see the corresponding command in the output window. Fityk has less than 30 commands. Each performs a single actions, such as loading data from file, adding function, assigning variable, fitting, or writing results to a file.
A sequence of commands written down in a file makes a script (macro), which can automate common tasks. Complex tasks may need to be programmed in a generalpurpose language. That is why Fityk has embedded Lua interpreter (Lua is a lightweight programming language). It is also possible to use Fityk library from a program in Python, C, C++, Java, Ruby or Perl, and possibly from other languages supported by SWIG.
Now a quick glimpse at the syntax. The =>
prompt below marks an input:
=> print pi
3.14159
=> # this is a comment  from `#' to the end of line
=> p '2+3=', 2+3 # p stands for print
2+3 = 5
=> set numeric_format='%.9f' # show 9 digits after dot
=> pr pi, pi^2, pi^3 # pr, pri and prin also stand for print
3.141592654 9.869604401 31.006276680
Usually, one line has one command, but if it is really needed, two or more commands can be put in one line:
=> $a = 3; $b = 5 # two commands separated with `;'
or a backslash can be used to continue a command in the next line:
=> print \
... 'this'
this
If the user works simultaneously with multiple datasets, she can refer to
a dataset using its number: the first dataset is @0
, the second – @1
,
etc:
=> fit # perform fitting of the default dataset (the first one)
=> @2: fit # fit the third dataset (@2)
=> @2 @3: fit # fit the third dataset (@2) and then the fourth one (@3)
=> @*: fit # fit all datasets, one by one
Settings in the program are changed with the command set
:
set key = value
For example:
=> set logfile = 'C:\log.fit' # log all commands to this file
=> set verbosity = 1 # make output from the program more verbose
=> set epsilon = 1e14
The last example changes the ε value, which is used to test floatingpoint numbers a and b for equality (it is well known that due to rounding errors the equality test for two numbers should have some tolerance, and the tolerance should be tailored to the application): a−b < ε.
To run a single command with different settings, add with key=value
before
the command:
=> print pi == 3.14 # default epsilon = 10^12
0
=> with epsilon = 0.1 print pi == 3.14 # abusing epsilon
1
Putting it all together, a line typically has a single command,
often prefixed with datasets+:
, sometimes prefixed with with
.
In general it is:
[[@...:] [with ...] command [";" command]...] [#comment]
All the commands are described in next chapters.
Data¶
Loading Data¶
Data files are read using the xylib library.
In the GUI
click . If it just works for your files, you may go straight to Active and Inactive Points.
Points are loaded from files using the command:
dataslot < filename[:xcol:ycol:scol:block] [filetype options...]
where
 dataslot should be replaced with
@0
, unless many datasets are to be used simultaneously (for details see: Working with Multiple Datasets),  xcol, ycol, scol (supported only in text and CSV files) are columns corresponding to x, y and std. dev. of y. Column 0 means index of the point: 0 for the first point, 1 for the second, etc.
 block  selects one or more blocks of data from a multiblock file such as VAMAS
 filetype usually can be omitted, because in most of the cases the filetype can be detected; the list of supported filetypes is at the end of this section
 options depend on a filetype and usually are omitted
If the filename contains blank characters, a semicolon or comma, it should be put inside single quotation marks (together with colonseparated indices, if any).
A few examples should clarify it:
@0 < foo.vms
@0 < 'foo.vms' # filename can be quoted
@0 < foo.fii text first_line_header # with filetype options
@0 < foo.csv:1:4:: # x,y  1st and 4th columns
@0 < foo.csv:1:2:3: # read std. dev. of y from 3rd column
@0 < foo.csv:0:1:: # x  index (0,1,2,...), y  first column
@0 < foo.raw::::0,1 # load two first blocks of data (as one dataset)
You may also specify multiple y columns.
It will load each x/y pair as a separate dataset.
In this case you need to use @+ < ...
(@+
denotes new dataslot):
@+ < foo.csv:1:3,4:: # load two dataset (with y in columns 3,4)
@+ < foo.csv:1:3..5:: # load three dataset (with y in columns 3,4,5)
@+ < foo.csv:1:4..6,2:: # load four dataset (y: 4,5,6,2)
@+ < foo.csv:1:2..:: # load 2nd and all the next columns as y
Information about loaded data can be obtained with:
info data
Supported Filetypes¶
 text
 ASCII text, multicolumn numeric data. The details are given in the next section.
 csv
 CSV or TSV file. Similar to text but supports quoted (
"
) values and uses different heuristic to interpret ambiguous cases.  dbws
 format used by DBWS (program for Rietveld analysis) and DMPLOT.
 canberra_cnf
 Canberra CNF format
 cpi
 Sietronics Sieray CPI format
 uxd
 Siemens/Bruker UXD format (powder diffraction data)
 bruker_raw
 SimensBruker RAW format (version 1,2,3)
 rigaku_dat
 Rigaku dat format (powder diffraction data)
 vamas
 VAMAS ISO14976 (only experiment modes: “SEM” or “MAPSV” or “MAPSVDP” and only “REGULAR” scan mode are supported)
 philips_udf
 Philips UDF (powder diffraction data)
 philips_rd
 Philips RD raw scan format V3 (powder diffraction data)
 spe
 Princeton Instruments WinSpec SPE format (only 1D data is supported)
 pdcif
 CIF for powder diffraction
And a few others. The full list is available at: http://xylib.sourceforge.net/.
Reading Text Files¶
The xylib library can read TSV or CSV formats (tab or comma separated values). In fact, the values can be separated by any whitespace character or by one of ,;: punctations, or by any combination of these.
Empty lines and comments that start with hash (#) are skipped.
Since there is a lot of files in the world that contain numeric data mixed
with text, unless the strict
option is given
any text that can not be interpreted as a number is regarded a start of
comment (the rest of the line is ignored).
Note that the file is parsed regardless of blocks and columns specified by the user. The data read from the file are first stored in a table with m columns and n rows. If some of the lines have 3 numbers in it, and some have 5 numbers, we can either discard the lines that have 3 numbers or we can discard the numbers in 4th and 5th column. Usually the latter is done, but there are exceptions. The shorter lines are ignored
 if it is the last line in the file (probably the program was terminated while writing the file),
 if it contains only one number, but the prior lines had more numbers (this may be a comment that starts with a number)
 if all the (not ignored) prior lines and the next line are longer
These rule were introduced to read freeformat log files with textual comments inserted between lines with numeric data.
For now, xylib does not handle well nan’s and inf’s in the data.
Data blocks and columns may have names. These names are used to set
a title of the dataset (see Working with Multiple Datasets for details).
If the option first_line_header
is given and the number of words
in the first line is equal to the number of data columns,
each word is used as a name of corresponding column.
If the number of words is different, the first line is used as a name of the
block.
If the last_line_header
option is given, the line preceding
the first data line is used to set either column names or the block name.
If the file starts with the “LAMMPS (
” string,
the last_line_header
option is set automatically.
This is very helpful when plotting data from LAMMPS log files.
Active and Inactive Points¶
We often have the situation that only a part of the data from a file is of interest. In Fityk, each point is either active or inactive. Inactive points are excluded from fitting and all calculations. (Since active points do not need to be in one region, we do not use the region of interest term here, but such region can be easy selected). A data transformation:
A = booleancondition
can be used to change the state of points.
In the GUI
data points can be activated and disactivated with mouse in the datarange mode (toolbar: ).
Standard Deviation (or Weight)¶
When fitting data, we assume that only the y coordinate is subject to statistical errors in measurement. This is a common assumption. To see how the y‘s standard deviation, σ, influences fitting (optimization), look at the weighted sum of squared residuals formula in Nonlinear Optimization. We can also think about weights of points – every point has a weight assigned, that is equal .
Standard deviation of points can be
read from file together with the x and y
coordinates. Otherwise, it is set either to max(y^{1/2}, 1)
or to 1, depending on the default_sigma
option.
Setting std. dev. as a square root of the value is common
and has theoretical ground when y is the number of independent events.
You can always change the standard deviation, e.g. make it equal for every
point with the command: S=1
.
See Data Point Transformations for details.
Note
It is often the case that user is not sure what standard deviation should be assumed, but it is her responsibility to pick something.
Data Point Transformations¶
Every data point has four properties: x coordinate, y coordinate,
standard deviation of y and active/inactive flag.
These properties can be changed using symbols X
, Y
, S
and A
,
respectively. It is possible to either change a single point or apply
a transformation to all points. For example:
Y[3]=1.2
assigns the y coordinate of the 4th point (0 is first),Y = y
changes the sign of the y coordinate for all points.
On the left side of the equality sign you can have one of symbols X
, Y
,
S
, A
, possibly with the index in brackets. The symbols on the left
side are case insensitive.
The right hand side is a mathematical expression that can have special variables:
 lower case letters
x
,y
,s
,a
represent properties of data points before transformation,  upper case
X
,Y
,S
,A
stand for the same properties after transformation, M
stands for the number of points.n
stands for the index of currently transformed point, e.g.,Y=y[Mn1]
means that nth point (n=0, 1, ... M1) is assigned y value of the nth point from the end.
Before the transformation a new array of points is created as a copy of the
old array.
Operations are applied sequentially from the first point to the last one,
so while Y[n+1]
and y[n+1]
have always the same value,
Y[n1]
and y[n1]
may differ. For example, the two commands:
Y = y[n] + y[n1]
Y = y[n] + Y[n1]
differ. The first one adds to each point the value of the previous point.
The second one adds the value of the previous point after transformation,
so effectively it adds the sum of all previous points.
The index [n]
could be omitted (Y = y + y[n1]
).
The value of undefined points, like y[1]
and Y[1]
,
is explained later in this section.
Expressions can contain:
 real numbers in normal or scientific format (e.g.
1.23e5
),  constants
pi
,true
(1),false
(0)  binary operators:
+
,
,*
,/
,^
,  boolean operators:
and
,or
,not
,  comparisions:
>
,>=
,<
,<=
,==
,!=
.  one argument functions:
sqrt
exp
log10
ln
sin
cos
tan
sinh
cosh
tanh
atan
asin
acos
erf
erfc
gamma
lgamma
(=ln(gamma()
))abs
round
(rounds to the nearest integer)
 two argument functions:
mod
(modulo)min2
max2
(max2(3,5)
gives 5),randuniform(a, b)
(random number from interval (a, b)),randnormal(mu, sigma)
(random number from normal distribution),voigt(a, b)
=
 ternary
?:
operator:condition ? expression1 : expression2
, which returns expression1 if condition is true and expression2 otherwise.
A few examples.
The x scale of diffraction pattern can be changed from 2θ to Q:
X = 4*pi * sin(x/2*pi/180) / 1.54051 # Cu 2θ > Q
Negative y values can be zeroed:
Y = max2(y, 0)
All standard deviations can be set to 1:
S = 1
It is possible to select active range of data:
A = x > 40 and x < 60 # select range (40, 60)
All operations are performed on real numbers. Two numbers that differ less than ε (the value of ε is set by the option epsilon) are considered equal.
Points can be created or deleted by changing the value of M
.
For example, the following commands:
M=500; x=n/100; y=sin(x)
create 500 points and generate a sinusoid.
Points are kept sorted according to their x coordinate. The sorting is performed after each transformation.
Note
Changing the x coordinate may change the order and indices of points.
Indices, like all other values, are computed in the real number domain. If the index is not integer (it is compared using ε to the rounded value):
x
,y
,s
,a
are interpolated linearly. For example,y[2.5]
is equal to(y[2]+[3])/2
. If the index is less than 0 or larger than M1, the value for the first or the last point, respectively, is returned. For
X
,Y
,S
,A
the index is rounded to integer. If the index is less than 0 or larger than M1, 0 is returned.
Transformations separated by commas (,
) form a sequance of transformations.
During the sequance, the vectors x
, y
, s
and a
that contain
old values are not changed. This makes possible to swap the axes:
X=y, Y=x
The special index(arg)
function returns the index of point that has
x equal arg, or, if there is no such point, the linear interpolation
of two neighbouring indices. This enables equilibrating the step of data
(with interpolation of y and σ):
X = x[0] + n * (x[M1]x[0]) / (M1), Y = y[index(X)], S = s[index(X)]
It is possible to delete points for which given condition is true,
using expression delete(condition)
:
delete(not a) # delete inactive points
# reduce twice the number of points, averaging x and adding y
x = (x[n]+x[n+1])/2
y = y[n]+y[n+1]
delete(mod(n,2) == 1)
If you have more than one dataset, you may need to specify to which dataset the transformation applies. See Working with Multiple Datasets for details.
The value of a data expression can be shown using the print
command.
The precision of printed numbers is governed by the
numeric_format option.
print M # the number of points
print y[index(20)] # value of y for x=20
Aggregate Functions¶
Aggregate functions have syntax:
aggregate(expression [if condition])
and return a single value, calculated from values of all points for which the given condition is true. If the condition is omitted, all points in the dataset are taken into account.
The following aggregate functions are recognized:
min()
— the smallest value,max()
— the largest value,argmin()
— (stands for the argument of the minimum) the x value of the point for which the expression in brackets has the smallest value,
argmax()
— the x value of the point for which the expression in brackets has the largest value,
sum()
— the sum,count()
— the number of points for which the expression is true,avg()
— the arithmetic mean,stddev()
— the standard deviation,centile(N, )
— percentiledarea()
— a function used to normalize the area (see the example below). It returns the sum of expression*(x[n+1]x[n1])/2. In particular,darea(y)
returns the interpolated area under data points.
Examples:
p avg(y) # print the average y value
p centile(50, y) # print the median y value
p max(y) # the largest y value
p argmax(y) # the position of data maximum
p max(y if x > 40 and x < 60) # the largest y value for x in (40, 60)
p max(y if a) # the largest y value in the active range
p min(x if y > 0.1)] # x of the first point with y > 0.1
p count(y>100) # the number of points that have y above 100
p count(y>avg(y)) # aggregate functions can be nested
p y[min(n if y > 100)] # the first (from the left) value of y above 100
# take the first 2000 points, average them and subtract as background
Y = y  avg(y if n<2000)
Y = y / darea(y) # normalize data area
# make active only the points on the left from the first
# point with y > 0.1
a = x < min(x if y > 0.1)]
Functions and Variables in Data Transformation¶
You may postpone reading this section and read about the Models first.
Variables ($foo) and functions (%bar) can be used in data expressions:
Y = y / $foo # divides all y's by $foo
Y = y  %f(x) # subtracts function %f from data
Y = y  @0.F(x) # subtracts all functions in F
# print the abscissa value of the maximum of the model
# (only the values in points are considered,
# so it's not exactly the model's maximum)
print argmax(F(x))
# print the maximum of the sum of two functions
print max(%_1(x) + %_2(x))
# Fit constant xcorrection (i.e. fit the instrumental zero error), ...
Z = Constant(~0)
fit
X = x + Z(x) # ... correct the data
Z = 0 # ... and remove the correction from the model.
In the GUI
in the Baseline Mode (),
functions Spline
and Polyline
are used to subtract manually selected background.
Clicking results in a command like this:
%bg0 = Spline(14.2979,62.1253, 39.5695,35.0676, 148.553,49.9493)
Y = y  %bg0(x)
Clicking the same button again undoes the subtraction:
Y = y + %bg0(x)
The function edited in the Baseline Mode is always named %bgX
,
where X is the index of the dataset.
Values of the function parameters (e.g. %fun.a0
) and pseudoparameters
Center
, Height
, FWHM
, IB
and Area
(e.g. %fun.Area
)
can also be used. IB stands for Integral Breadth – width of rectangle with
the same area and height as the peak, in other words Area/Height.
Not all functions have pseudoparameters.
It is also possible to calculate some properties of %functions:
%f.numarea(x1, x2, n)
gives area integrated numerically from x1 to x2 using trapezoidal rule with n equal steps.%f.findx(x1, x2, y)
finds x in interval (x1, x2) such that %f(x)=y using bisection method combined with NewtonRaphson method. It is a requirement that %f(x1) < y < %f(x2).%f.extremum(x1, x2)
finds x in interval (x1, x2) such that %f’(x)=0 using bisection method. It is a requirement that %f’(x1) and %f’(x2) have different signs.
A few examples:
print %fun.findx(10, 10, 0) # find the zero of %fun in [10, 10]
print F.findx(10, 10, 0) # find the zero of the model in [10, 10]
print %fun.numarea(0, 100, 10000) # shows area of function %fun
print %_1(%_1.extremum(40, 50)) # shows extremum value
# calculate FWHM numerically, value 50 can be tuned
$c = {%f.Center}
p %f.findx($c, $c+50, %f.Height/2)  %f.findx($c, $c50, %f.Height/2)
p %f.FWHM # should give almost the same.
Working with Multiple Datasets¶
Let us call a set of data that usually comes from one file –
a dataset. It is possible to work simultaneously with multiple datasets.
Datasets have numbers and are referenced by @
with the number,
(e.g. @3
).
The user can specify which dataset the command should be applied to:
@0: M=500 # change the number of points in the first dataset
@1 @2: M=500 # the same command applied to two datasets
@*: M=500 # and the same applied to all datasets
If the dataset is not specified, the command applies to the default dataset,
which is initially @0. The use
command changes the default dataset:
use @2 # set @2 as default
To load dataset from file, use one of the commands:
@n < filename:xcol:ycol:scol:block filetype options...
@+ < filename:xcol:ycol:scol:block filetype options...
The first one uses existing data slot and the second one creates
a new slot. Using @+
increases the number of datasets,
and the command delete @n
decreases it.
The dataset can be duplicated (@+ = @n
) or transformed,
more on this in the next section.
Each dataset has a separate model, that can be fitted to the data. This is explained in the next chapter.
Each dataset also has a title (it does not have to be unique, however). When loading file, a title is automatically created:
 if there is a name associated with the column ycol, the title is based on it;
 otherwise, if there is a name associated with the data block read from file, the title is set to this name;
 otherwise, the title is based on the filename
Titles can be changed using the command:
@n: title = 'newtitle'
To print the title of the dataset, type @n: info title
.
Dataset Transformations¶
There are a few transformations defined for a whole dataset
or for two datasets. The syntax is @n = ...
or @+ = ...
.
The the right hand side expression supports the following operations:
@n
 negation of all y values,
d * @n
 (e.g.
0.4*@0
) y values are multiplied by d, @n + @m
 returns
@n
with added y values from interpolated@m
, @n  @m
 returns
@n
with subtracted y values from interpolated@m
, @n and @m
 returns points from both datasets (resorted),
and functions:
sum_same_x(@n)
 Merges points which have distance in x is smaller than epsilon. x of the merged point is the average, and y and σ are sums of components.
avg_same_x(@n)
 The same as
sum_same_x
, but y and σ are set as the average of components. shirley_bg(@n)
 Calculates Shirley background (useful in Xray photoelectron spectroscopy).
Examples:
@+ = @0 # duplicate the dataset
@+ = @0 and @1 # create a new dataset from @0 and @1
@0 = @0  shirley_bg(@0) # remove Shirley background
@0 = @0  @1 # subtract @1 from @0
@0 = @0  0.28*@1 # subtract scaled dataset @1 from @0
Exporting Data¶
Command:
print all: expression, ... > file.tsv
can export data to an ASCII TSV (tab separated values) file.
In the GUI
To export data in a 3column (x, y and standard deviation) format, use:
print all: x, y, s > file.tsv
Any expressions can be printed out:
p all: n+1, x, y, F(x), yF(x), %foo(x), sin(pi*x)+y^2 > file.tsv
It is possible to select which points are to be printed by replacing all
with if
followed by a condition:
print if a: x, y # only active points are printed
print if x > 30 and x < 40: x, y # only points in (30,40)
The option numeric_format controls the format and precision of all numbers.
Models¶
From Numerical Recipes, chapter 15.0:
Given a set of observations, one often wants to condense and summarize the data by fitting it to a “model” that depends on adjustable parameters. Sometimes the model is simply a convenient class of functions, such as polynomials or Gaussians, and the fit supplies the appropriate coefficients. Other times, the model’s parameters come from some underlying theory that the data are supposed to satisfy; examples are coefficients of rate equations in a complex network of chemical reactions, or orbital elements of a binary star. Modeling can also be used as a kind of constrained interpolation, where you want to extend a few data points into a continuous function, but with some underlying idea of what that function should look like.
This chapter shows how to construct the model.
Complex models are often a sum of many functions. That is why in Fityk the model F is constructed as a list of component functions and is computed as .
Each component function is one of predefined functions, such as Gaussian or polynomial. This is not a limitation, because the user can add any function to the predefined functions.
To avoid confusion, the name function will be used only when referring to a component function, not when when referring to the sum (model), which mathematically is also a function. The predefined functions will be sometimes called function types.
Function is a function of x, and depends on a vector of parameters . The parameters will be fitted to achieve agreement of the model and data.
In experiments we often have the situation that the measured x values are subject to systematic errors caused, for example, by instrumental zero shift or, in powder diffraction measurements, by displacement of sample in the instrument. If this is the case, such errors should be a part of the model. In Fityk, this part of the model is called xcorrection. The final formula for the model is:
where is the xcorrection. Z is constructed as a list of components, analogously to F, although in practice it has rarely more than one component.
Each component function is created by specifying a function type and binding variables to type’s parameters. The next section explains what are variables in Fityk, and then we get back to functions.
Variables¶
Variables have names prefixed with the dollar symbol ($) and are created by assigning a value:
$foo=~5.3 # simplevariable
$bar=5*sin($foo) # compoundvariable
$c=3.1 # constant (the simplest compoundvariable)
The numbers prefixed with the tilde (~) are adjustable when the model
is fitted to the data.
Variable created by assigning ~
number
(like $foo
in the example above)
will be called a simplevariable.
All other variables are called compoundvariables.
Compound variables either depend on other variables ($bar
above)
or are constant ($c
).
Important
Unlike in popular programming languages, variable can store either a single
numeric (floatingpoint) value or a mathematical expression. Nothing else.
In case of expression, if we define $b=2*$a
the value of $b
will be recalculated every time $a
changes.
To assign a value (constant) of another variable, use:
$b={$a}
. Braces return the current value of the enclosed expression.
The left brace can be preceded by the tilde (~
).
The assignment $b=~{$a}
creates a simple variable.
Compoundvariables can be build using operators +, , *, /, ^
and the functions
sqrt
,
exp
,
log10
,
ln
,
sin
,
cos
,
tan
,
sinh
,
cosh
,
tanh
,
atan
,
asin
,
acos
,
erf
,
erfc
,
lgamma
,
abs
,
voigt
.
This is a subset of the functions used in
data transformations.
The braces may contain any data expression:
$x0 = {x[0]}
$min_y = {min(y if a)}
$c = {max2($a, $b)}
$t = {max(x) < 78 ? $a : $b}
Sometimes it is useful to freeze a variable, i.e. to prevent it from changing while fitting:
$a = ~12.3 # $a is fittable (simplevariable)
$a = {$a} # $a is not fittable (constant)
$a = ~{$a} # $a is fittable (simplevariable) again
In the GUI
a variable can be switched between constant and simplevariable by clicking the padlock button on the sidebar. The icons and show that the variable is fittable and frozen, respectively.
If the assigned expression contains tildes:
$bleh=~9.1*exp(~2)
it automatically creates simplevariables corresponding
to the tildeprefixed numbers.
In the example above two simplevariables (with values 9.1 and 2) are created.
Automatically created variables are named $_1
, $_2
, $_3
, and so on.
Variables can be deleted using the command:
delete $variable
Domains¶
Simplevariables may have a domain, which is used for two things when fitting.
Most importantly, fitting methods that support bound constraints use the domain as lower and/or upper bounds. See the section Bound Constraints for details.
The other use is for randomizing parameters (simplevariables) of the model. Methods that stochastically initialize or modify parameters (usually generating a set of initial points) need welldefined domains (minimum and maximum values for parameters) to work effectively. Such methods include NelderMead simplex and Genetic Algorithms, but not the default LevMar method, so in most cases you do not need to worry about it.
The syntax is as follows:
$a = ~12.3 [0:20] # initial values are drawn from the (0, 20) range
$a = ~12.3 [0:] # only lower bound
$a = ~12.3 [:20] # only upper bound
$a = ~15.0 # domain stays the same
$a = ~15.0 [] # no domain
$a = ~{$a} [0:20] # domain is set again
If the domain is not specified but it is required (for the latter use)
by the fitting method, we assume it to be ±p% of the current value,
where p can be set using the domain_percent
option.
Function Types and Functions¶
Function types have names that start with upper case letter
(Linear
, Voigt
).
Functions have names prefixed with the percent symbol (%func
).
Every function has a type and variables bound to its parameters.
One way to create a function is to specify both type and variables:
%f1 = Gaussian(~66254., ~24.7, ~0.264)
%f2 = Gaussian(~6e4, $ctr, $b+$c)
%f3 = Gaussian(height=~66254., hwhm=~0.264, center=~24.7)
Every expression which is valid on the righthand side of a variable
assignment can be used as a variable.
If it is not just a name of a variable, an automatic variable is created.
In the above examples, two variables were implicitely created for %f2
:
first for value 6e4
and the second for $b+$c
).
If the names of function’s parameters are given (like for %f3
above),
the variables can be given in any order.
Function types can can have specified default values for some parameters. The variables for such parameters can be omitted, e.g.:
=> i Pearson7
Pearson7(height, center, hwhm, shape=2) = height/(1+((xcenter)/hwhm)^2*(2^(1/shape)1))^shape
=> %f4 = Pearson7(height=~66254., center=~24.7, hwhm=~0.264) # no shape is given
New function %f4 was created.
Functions can be copied. The following command creates a deep copy (i.e. all variables are also duplicated) of %foo:
%bar = copy(%foo)
Functions can be also created with the command guess
,
as described in Guessing Initial Parameters.
Variables bound to the function parameters can be changed at any time:
=> %f = Pearson7(height=~66254., center=~24.7, fwhm=~0.264)
New function %f was created.
=> %f.center=~24.8
=> $h = ~66254
=> %f.height=$h
=> info %f
%f = Pearson7($h, $_5, $_3, $_4)
=> $h = ~60000 # variables are kept by name, so this also changes %f
=> %p1.center = %p2.center + 3 # keep fixed distance between %p1 and %p2
Functions can be deleted using the command:
delete %function
BuiltIn Functions¶
The list of all functions can be obtained using i types
.
Some formulae here have long parameter names
(like “height”, “center” and “hwhm”) replaced with
Gaussian:
here is half width at half maximum (HWHM=FWHM/2, where FWHM stands for full width...), which is proportional to the standard deviation: .
SplitGaussian:
GaussianA:
Lorentzian:
SplitLorentzian:
LorentzianA:
Pearson VII (Pearson7):
split Pearson VII (SplitPearson7):
Pearson VII Area (Pearson7A):
PseudoVoigt (PseudoVoigt):
PseudoVoigt is a name given to the sum of Gaussian and Lorentzian. parameters in Pearson VII and PseudoVoigt are not related.
split PseudoVoigt (SplitPseudoVoigt):
PseudoVoigt Area (PseudoVoigtA):
Voigt:
The Voigt function is a convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions. = heigth, = center, is proportional to the Gaussian width, and is proportional to the ratio of Lorentzian and Gaussian widths.
Voigt is computed according to R.J.Wells, Rapid approximation to the Voigt/Faddeeva function and its derivatives, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 62 (1999) 2948. The approximation is very fast, but not very exact.
FWHM is estimated using an approximation called modified Whiting (Olivero and Longbothum, 1977, JQSRT 17, 233): , where .
VoigtA:
split Voigt (SplitVoigt):
Exponentially Modified Gaussian (EMG):
The exponentially modified Gaussian is a convolution of Gaussian and exponential probability density. a = Gaussian heigth, b = location parameter (Gaussian center), c = Gaussian width, d = distortion parameter (a.k.a. modification factor or time constant).
LogNormal:
DoniachSunjic (DoniachSunjic):
Polynomial5:
Sigmoid:
FCJAsymm:
Axial asymmetry peak shape in the Finger, Cox and Jephcoat model, see J. Appl. Cryst. (1994) 27, 892 and J. Appl. Cryst. (2013) 46, 1219.
Variadic Functions¶
Variadic function types have variable number of parameters. Two variadic function types are defined:
Spline(x1, y1, x2, y2, ...)
Polyline(x1, y1, x2, y2, ...)
This example:
%f = Spline(22.1, 37.9, 48.1, 17.2, 93.0, 20.7)
creates a function that is a natural cubic spline interpolation through points (22.1, 37.9), (48.1, 17.2), ....
The Polyline
function is a polyline interpolation (spline of order 1).
Both Spline
and Polyline
functions are primarily used
for the manual baseline subtraction via the GUI.
The derivatives of Spline function are not calculated, so this function is not refined by the default, derivativebased fitting algorithm.
Since the Polyline derivatives are calculated, it is possible to perform weighted least squares approximation by broken lines, although nonlinear fitting algorithms are not optimal for this task.
UserDefined Functions (UDF)¶
Userdefined function types can be added using command define
,
and then used in the same way as builtin functions.
Example:
define MyGaussian(height, center, hwhm) = height*exp(ln(2)*((xcenter)/hwhm)^2)
The name of new type must start with an uppercase letter, contain only letters and digits and have at least two characters.
The name of the type is followed by parameters in brackets.
Parameter name must start with lowercase letter and, contain only lowercase letters, digits and the underscore (‘_’).
The name “x” is reserved, do not put it into parameter list, just use it on the righthand side of the definition.
There are special names of parameters that Fityk understands:
 if the functions is peaklike (bellshaped):
height
,center
,hwhm
,area
,  if the functions is Sshaped (sigmoidal) or steplike:
lower
,upper
,xmid
,wsig
,  if the function is more like linear:
slope
,intercept
,avgy
.
The initial values of these parameters can be guessed (command
guess
) from the data.hwhm
means half width at half maximum, the other names are selfexplaining. if the functions is peaklike (bellshaped):
Each parameter may have a default value (see the examples below). The default value can be either a number or an expression that depends on the parameters listed above (e.g.
0.8*hwhm
). The default value always binds a simplevariable to the parameter.
UDFs can be defined in a few ways:
 by giving a full formula, like in the example above,
 as a reparametrization of existing function
(see the
GaussianArea
example below),  as a sum of already defined functions
(see the
GLSum
example below),  as a split (bifurcated) function:
x <
expression?
Function1(...):
Function2(...) (see theSplitL
example below).
When giving a full formula, the righthand side of the equality sign is similar to the definiton of variable, but the formula can also depend on x. Hopefully the examples can make the syntax clear:
# this is how some builtin functions could be defined
define MyGaussian(height, center, hwhm) = height*exp(ln(2)*((xcenter)/hwhm)^2)
define MyLorentzian(height, center, hwhm) = height/(1+((xcenter)/hwhm)^2)
define MyCubic(a0=height,a1=0, a2=0, a3=0) = a0 + a1*x + a2*x^2 + a3*x^3
# supersonic beam arrival time distribution
define SuBeArTiDi(c, s, v0, dv) = c*(s/x)^3*exp((((s/x)v0)/dv)^2)/x
# areabased Gaussian can be defined as modification of builtin Gaussian
# (it is the same as builtin GaussianA function)
define GaussianArea(area, center, hwhm) = Gaussian(area/hwhm/sqrt(pi/ln(2)), center, hwhm)
# sum of Gaussian and Lorentzian, a.k.a. PseudoVoigt (should be in one line)
define GLSum(height, center, hwhm, shape) = Gaussian(height*(1shape), center, hwhm)
+ Lorentzian(height*shape, center, hwhm)
# splitGaussian, the same as builtin SplitGaussian (should be in one line)
define SplitG(height, center, hwhm1=fwhm*0.5, hwhm2=fwhm*0.5) =
x < center ? Lorentzian(height, center, hwhm1)
: Lorentzian(height, center, hwhm2)
There is a simple substitution mechanism that makes writing complicated
functions easier.
Substitutions must be assigned in the same line, after the keyword where
.
Example:
define ReadShockley(sigma0=1, a=1) = sigma0 * t * (a  ln(t)) where t=x*pi/180
# more complicated example, with nested substitutions
define FullGBE(k, alpha) = k * alpha * eta * (eta / tanh(eta)  ln (2*sinh(eta))) where eta = 2*pi/alpha * sin(theta/2), theta=x*pi/180
How it works internally
The formula is parsed, derivatives of the formula are calculated symbolically, expressions are simplified and bytecode for virtual machine (VM) is created.
When fitting, the VM calculates the value of the function and derivatives for every point.
Defined functions can be undefined using command undefine
:
undefine GaussianArea
It is common to add own definitions to the init
file.
See the section Starting fityk and cfityk for details.
Cutoff¶
With default settings, the value of every function is calculated
at every point. Peak functions, such as Gaussian, often have nonnegligible
values only in a small fraction of all points,
so if you have many narrow peaks
(like here),
the basic optimization is to calculate values of each peak function
only near the function’s center.
If the option function_cutoff
is set to a nonzero value,
each function is evaluated only in the range where its values are
greater than the function_cutoff
.
This optimization is supported only by some builtin functions.
Model, F and Z¶
As already discussed, each dataset has a separate model that can be fitted to the data. As can be seen from the formula at the beginning of this chapter, the model is defined as a set functions and a set of functions . These sets are named F and Z respectively. The model is constructed by specifying names of functions in these two sets.
In many cases xcorrection Z is not used. The fitted curve is thus the sum of all functions in F.
Command:
F += %function
adds %function to F, and
Z += %function
adds %function to Z.
A few examples:
# create and add function to F
%g = Gaussian(height=~66254., hwhm=~0.264, center=~24.7)
F += %g
# create unnamed function and add it to F
F += Gaussian(height=~66254., hwhm=~0.264, center=~24.7)
# clear F
F = 0
# clear F and put three functions in it
F = %a + %b + %c
# show info about the first and the last function in F
info F[0], F[1]
The next sections shows an easier way to add a function (command guess
).
If there is more than one dataset, F and Z can be prefixed
with the dataset number (e.g. @1.F
).
The model can be copied. To copy the model from @0
to @1
we type one of the two commands:
@1.F = @0.F # shallow copy
@1.F = copy(@0.F) # deep copy
The former command uses the same functions in both models: if you shift
a peak in @1
, it will be also shifted in @0
. The latter command
(deep copy) duplicates all functions and variables and makes an independent
model.
In the GUI
click the button on the sidebar to make a deep copy.
It is often required to keep the width or shape of peaks constant for all peaks in the dataset. To change the variables bound to parameters with a given name for all functions in F, use the command:
F[*].param = variable
Examples:
# Set hwhm of all functions in F that have a parameter hwhm to $foo
# (hwhm here means halfwidthathalfmaximum)
F[*].hwhm = $foo
# Bound the variable used for the shape of peak %_1 to shapes of all
# functions in F
F[*].shape = %_1.shape
# Create a new simplevariable for each function in F and bound the
# variable to parameter hwhm. All hwhm parameters will be independent.
F[*].hwhm = ~0.2
In the GUI
buttons and on the sidebar make, respectively, the HWHM and shape of all functions the same. Pressing the buttons again will make all the parameters independent.
Guessing Initial Parameters¶
The program can automatically set initial parameters of peaks (using peakdetection algorithm) and lines (using linear regression). Choosing initial parameters of a function by the program will be called guessing.
It is possible to guess peak location and add it to F with the command:
guess [%name =] PeakType [(initial values...)] [[x1:x2]]
Examples:
# add Gaussian in the given range
@0: guess Gaussian [22.1:30.5]
# the same, but name the new function %f1
@0: guess %f1 = Gaussian [22.1:30.5]
# search for the peak in the whole dataset
@0: guess Gaussian
# add one Gaussian to each dataset
@*: guess Gaussian
# set the center and shape explicitely (determine height and width)
guess PseudoVoigt(center=$ctr, shape=~0.3) [22.1:30.5]
 Name of the function is optional.
 Some of the parameters can be specified in brackets.
 If the range is omitted, the whole dataset will be searched.
Fityk offers a simple algorithm for peakdetection.
It finds the highest point in the given range (center
and height
),
and than tries to find the width of the peak (hwhm
, and area
= height × hwhm).
If the highest point is at boundary of the given range, the points from the boundary to the nearest local minimum are ignored.
The values of height and width found by the algorithm
are multiplied by the values of options height_correction
and width_correction
, respectively. The default value for both
options is 1.
Another simple algorithm can roughly estimate initial parameters of sigmoidal functions.
The linear traits slope
and intercept
are calculated using linear
regression (without weights of points).
avgy
is calculated as average value of y.
In the GUI
select a function from the list of functions on the toolbar and press to add (guess) the selected function.
To choose a data range change the GUI mode to and select the range with the right mouse button.
Displaying Information¶
The info
command can be show useful information when constructing
the model.
info types
 shows the list of available function types.
info FunctionType
 (e.g.
info Pearson7
) shows the formula (definition). info guess [range]
 shows where the
guess
command would locate a peak. info functions
 lists all defined functions.
info variables
 lists all defined variables.
info F
 lists components of F.
info Z
 lists components of Z.
info formula
 shows the full mathematical formula of the fitted model.
info simplified_formula
 shows the same, but the formula is simplified.
info gnuplot_formula
 shows same as
formula
, but the output is readable by gnuplot, e.g.x^2
is replaced byx**2
. info simplified_gnuplot_formula
 shows the simplified formula in the gnuplot format.
info peaks
 show a formatted list of parameters of functions in F.
info peaks_err
 shows the same data, additionally including uncertainties of the parameters.
info models
 a script that reconstructs all variables, functions and models.
The last two commands are often redirected to a file
(info peaks > filename
).
The complete list of info
arguments can be found in Information Display.
In the GUI
most of the above commands has clickable equivalents.
Curve Fitting¶
Nonlinear Optimization¶
This is the core. We have a set of observations (data points) to which we want to fit a model that depends on adjustable parameters. Let me quote Numerical Recipes, chapter 15.0, page 656):
The basic approach in all cases is usually the same: You choose or design a figureofmerit function (merit function, for short) that measures the agreement between the data and the model with a particular choice of parameters. The merit function is conventionally arranged so that small values represent close agreement. The parameters of the model are then adjusted to achieve a minimum in the merit function, yielding bestfit parameters. The adjustment process is thus a problem in minimization in many dimensions. [...] however, there exist special, more efficient, methods that are specific to modeling, and we will discuss these in this chapter. There are important issues that go beyond the mere finding of bestfit parameters. Data are generally not exact. They are subject to measurement errors (called noise in the context of signalprocessing). Thus, typical data never exactly fit the model that is being used, even when that model is correct. We need the means to assess whether or not the model is appropriate, that is, we need to test the goodnessoffit against some useful statistical standard. We usually also need to know the accuracy with which parameters are determined by the data set. In other words, we need to know the likely errors of the bestfit parameters. Finally, it is not uncommon in fitting data to discover that the merit function is not unimodal, with a single minimum. In some cases, we may be interested in global rather than local questions. Not, “how good is this fit?” but rather, “how sure am I that there is not a very much better fit in some corner of parameter space?”
Our function of merit is the weighted sum of squared residuals (WSSR), also called chisquare:
Weights are based on standard deviations, . You can learn why squares of residuals are minimized e.g. from chapter 15.1 of Numerical Recipes.
The most popular method for curvefitting is LevenbergMarquardt. Fityk can also use a few generalpurpose optimization methods. These methods are slower, some of them are orders of magnitude slower. Sometimes alternative methods find global minimum when the LM algorithm is stuck in a local minimum, but in majority of cases the default LM method is superior.
Uncertainty of Parameters¶
(It is easier for me to find a quote than to express it myself).
From the book J. Wolberg, Data Analysis Using the Method of Least Squares: Extracting the Most Information from Experiments, Springer, 2006, p.50:
(...) we turn to the task of determining the uncertainties associated with the ‘s. The usual measures of uncertainty are standard deviation (i.e., σ) or variance (i.e., σ^{2}) so we seek an expression that allows us to estimate the ‘s. It can be shown (...) that the following expression gives us an unbiased estimate of :
Note that is a square root of the value above. In this formula np, the number of (active) data points minus the number of independent parameters, is equal to the number of degrees of freedom. S is another symbol for .
Terms of the C matrix are given as (p. 47 in the same book):
above is often called a standard error. Having standard errors, it is easy to calculate confidence intervals. But all these values should be used with care. Now another book will be cited: H. Motulsky and A. Christopoulos, Fitting Models to Biological Data Using Linear and Nonlinear Regression: A Practical Guide to Curve Fitting, Oxford University Press, 2004. This book can be downloaded for free as a manual to GraphPad Prism 4.
The standard errors reported by most nonlinear regression programs (...) are “approximate” or “asymptotic”. Accordingly, the confidence intervals computed using these errors should also be considered approximate.
It would be a mistake to assume that the “95% confidence intervals” reported by nonlinear regression have exactly a 95% chance of enclosing the true parameter values. The chance that the true value of the parameter is within the reported confidence interval may not be exactly 95%. Even so, the asymptotic confidence intervals will give you a good sense of how precisely you have determined the value of the parameter.
The calculations only work if nonlinear regression has converged on a sensible fit. If the regression converged on a false minimum, then the sumofsquares as well as the parameter values will be wrong, so the reported standard error and confidence intervals won’t be helpful.
Bound Constraints¶
Simplevariables can have a domain.
Fitting method mpfit
(LevMar implementation) and the methods
from the NLOpt library use domains to constrain the parameters
– they never let the parameters go outside of the domain during fitting.
In the literature, bound constraints are also called box constraints or, more generally, inequality constraints. Now a quotation discouraging the use of constraints. Peter Gans, Data Fitting in the Chemical Sciences by the Method of Least Squares, John Wiley & Sons, 1992, chapter 5.2.2:
Before looking at ways of dealing with inequality constraints we must ask a fundamental question: are they necessary? In the physical sciences and in leastsquares minimizations in particular, inequality constraints are not always justified. The most common inequality constraint is that some number that relates to a physical quantity should be positive, p_{j} > 0. If an unconstrained minimalization leads to a negative value, what are we to conclude? There are three possibilities; (a) the refinement has converged to a false minimum; (b) the model is wrong; (c) the parameter is not well defined by the data and is not significantly different from zero. In each of these three cases a remedy is at hand that does not involve constrained minimization: (a) start the refinement from good first estimates of the parameters; (b) change the model; (c) improve the quality of the data by further experimental work. If none of these remedies cure the problem of nonnegativity constraints, then something is seriously wrong with the patient, and constrained minimization will probably not help.
Setting the domain is described in the section Domains.
For a convenience, the box_constraints
option can globally disable
(and reenable) the constraints.
LevenbergMarquardt¶
This is a standard nonlinear leastsquares routine, and involves computing the first derivatives of functions. For a description of the algorithm see Numerical Recipes, chapter 15.5 or Siegmund Brandt, Data Analysis, chapter 10.15. Essentially, it combines an inverseHessian method with a steepest descent method by introducing a λ factor. When λ is equal to 0, the method is equivalent to the inverseHessian method. When λ increases, the shift vector is rotated toward the direction of steepest descent and the length of the shift vector decreases. (The shift vector is a vector that is added to the parameter vector.) If a better fit is found on iteration, λ is decreased.
Two implementation of this method are available: one from the MPFIT library, based on the old good MINPACK code (default method since ver. 1.3.0), and a custom implementation (default method in earlier fityk versions).
To switch between the two implementation use command:
set fitting_method = mpfit # switch to MPFIT
set fitting_method = levenberg_marquardt # switch to fityk implem. of LM
The following stopping criteria are available for mpfit:
 the relative change of WSSR is smaller than the value of
the
ftol_rel
option (default: 10^10),  the relative change of parameters is smaller than the value of
the
xtol_rel
option (default: 10^10),
and for levenberg_marquardt:
 the relative change of WSSR is smaller than the value of
the
lm_stop_rel_change
option twice in row,  λ is greater than the value of the
lm_max_lambda
option (default: 10^15), which normally means WSSR is not changing due to limited numerical precision.
NelderMead Downhill Simplex¶
To quote chapter 4.8.3, p. 86 of Peter Gans, Data Fitting in the Chemical Sciences by the Method of Least Squares:
A simplex is a geometrical entity that has n+1 vertices corresponding to variations in n parameters. For two parameters the simplex is a triangle, for three parameters the simplex is a tetrahedron and so forth. The value of the objective function is calculated at each of the vertices. An iteration consists of the following process. Locate the vertex with the highest value of the objective function and replace this vertex by one lying on the line between it and the centroid of the other vertices. Four possible replacements can be considered, which I call contraction, short reflection, reflection and expansion.[...] It starts with an arbitrary simplex. Neither the shape nor position of this are critically important, except insofar as it may determine which one of a set of multiple minima will be reached. The simplex than expands and contracts as required in order to locate a valley if one exists. Then the size and shape of the simplex is adjusted so that progress may be made towards the minimum. Note particularly that if a pair of parameters are highly correlated, both will be simultaneously adjusted in about the correct proportion, as the shape of the simplex is adapted to the local contours.[...] Unfortunately it does not provide estimates of the parameter errors, etc. It is therefore to be recommended as a method for obtaining initial parameter estimates that can be used in the standard least squares method.
This method is also described in previously mentioned Numerical Recipes (chapter 10.4) and Data Analysis (chapter 10.8).
There are a few options for tuning this method. One of these is a
stopping criterium nm_convergence
. If the value of the
expression 2(M−m)/(M+m), where M and m are the values
of the worst and best vertices respectively (values of objective functions of
vertices, to be precise!), is smaller then the value of
nm_convergence
option, fitting is stopped. In other words,
fitting is stopped if all vertices are almost at the same level.
The remaining options are related to initialization of the simplex.
Before starting iterations, we have to choose a set of points in space
of the parameters, called vertices. Unless the option
nm_move_all
is set, one of these points will be the current
point – values that parameters have at this moment. All but this one
are drawn as follows: each parameter of each vertex is drawn separately.
It is drawn from a distribution that has its center in the center of the
domain of the parameter, and a width proportional to
both width of the domain and value of the nm_move_factor
parameter. Distribution shape can be set using the option
nm_distribution
as one of: uniform
, gaussian
,
lorentzian
and bound
. The last one causes the value of the
parameter to be either the greatest or smallest value in the domain of
the parameter – one of the two bounds of the domain (assuming that
nm_move_factor
is equal 1).
NLopt¶
A few methods from the NLopt library are available:
nlopt_nm
– NelderMead method, similar to the one described above,nlopt_lbfgs
– lowstorage BFGS,nlopt_var2
– shifted limitedmemory variablemetric,nlopt_praxis
– PRAXIS (PRincipal AXIS),nlopt_bobyqa
– BOBYQA,nlopt_sbplx
– Sbplx (based on Subplex),
All NLopt methods have the same stopping criteria (in addition to the common criteria):
 an optimization step changes the WSSR value by less than the value of
the
ftol_rel
option (default: 10^10) multiplied by the WSSR,  an optimization step changes every parameter by less than the value of
the
xtol_rel
option (default: 10^10) multiplied by the absolute value of the parameter.
Scripts¶
Working with Scripts¶
Fityk can run two kinds of scripts:
 Fityk scripts composed of the commands described in previous sections,
 and Lua scripts (extension
.lua
), in the Lua language.
Scripts are executed using the exec command:
exec file1.fit
exec file2.lua
exec file3.fit.gz # read script compressed with gzip
Note
Fityk can save its state to a script (info state > file.fit
).
It can also save all commands executed (directly or via GUI) in the session
to a script (info history > file.fit
).
Embedded Lua interpreter can execute any program in Lua 5.2.
Oneliners can be run with command lua
:
=> lua print(_VERSION)
Lua 5.1
=> lua print(os.date("Today is %A."))
Today is Thursday.
=> lua for n,f in F:all_functions() do print(n, f, f:get_template_name()) end
0 %_1 Constant
1 %_2 Cycle
(The Lua print
function in fityk is redefined to show the output
in the GUI instead of writing to stdout
).
Like in the Lua interpreter, =
at the beginning of line can be used
to save some typing:
=> = os.date("Today is %A.")
Today is Thursday.
Similarly, exec=
also interprets the rest of line
as Lua expressions, but this time the resulting string is executed
as a fityk command:
=> = string.format("fit @%d", math.random(0,5))
fit @4
=> exec= string.format("fit @%d", math.random(0,5))
# fitting random dataset (useless example)
The embedded Lua interpreter interacts with the rest of the program
through the global object F
:
=> = F:get_info("version")
Fityk 1.2.1
All methods of F
are documented in the section Fityk library API.
A few more examples.
Let’s say that we work with a number of datasets, and for each of them
we want to save output of the info peaks
command to a file
named originaldatafilename.out. This can be done in one line:
=> @*: lua F:execute("info peaks >'%s.out'" % F:get_info("filename"))
Now a more complex script that would need to be put into a file
(with extension .lua
) and run with exec
.
:
 load data from files file01.dat, file02.dat, ... file13.dat
for i=1,13 do
F:execute("@+ < file%02d.dat:0:1::" % i)
end
 print some statistics about the loaded data
n = F:get_dataset_count()
print(n .. " datasets loaded.")
total_max_y = 0
for i=0, n1 do
max_y = F:calculate_expr("max(y)", i)
if max_y > total_max_y then
total_max_y = max_y
end
end
print("The largest y: " .. total_max_y)
If a fityk command executed from Lua script fails, the whole script is stopped, unless you catch the error:
 wrap F:execute() in pcall to handle possible errors
status, err = pcall(function() F:execute("fit") end)
if status == false then
print("Error: " .. err)
end
The Lua interpreter was added in ver. 1.0.3. If you need help with writing Lua scripts  feel free to ask. Usage scenarios give us a better idea what functions should be available from the Lua interface.
Fityk also has a simple mechanism to interact with external programs.
It is useful mostly on Unix systems. !
runs a program,
exec!
runs a program, reads its standard output and executes it
as a Fityk script.
Here is an example of using Unix utilties echo
, ls
and head
to load the newest CIF file from the current directory:
=> ! pwd
/home/wojdyr/fityk/data
=> ! ls t *.cif  head 1
lab6_32610q.cif
=> exec! echo "@+ < $(ls t *.cif  head 1)"
> @+ < lab6_32610q.cif
2300 points. No explicit std. dev. Set as sqrt(y)
Fityk DSL¶
As was described in Command Line, each line has a syntax:
[[@...:] [with ...] command [”;” command]...] [#comment]
The datasets listed before the colon (:
) make a foreach loop.
Here is a silly example:
=> $a=0
=> @0 @0 @0: $a={$a+1}; print $a
1
2
3
Command that follows the colon is run for each specified dataset in the context of that dataset. This is to say that:
=> @2 @4: guess Voigt
is equivalent to:
=> use @2
=> guess Voigt
=> use @4
=> guess Voigt
(except that the latter sets permenently default dataset to @4
.
@*
stands for all datasets, from @0
to the last one.
Usually, when working with multiple datasets, one executes a command either for a single dataset or for all of them:
=> @3: guess Voigt # just for @3
=> @*: guess Voigt # for all datasets
The whole line is parsed and partly validated before the execution. This may lead to unexpected errors when the line has multiple semicolonseparated commands:
=> $a=4; print $a # print gives unexpected error
Error: undefined variable: $a
=> $b=2
=> $b=4; print $b # $b is already defined at the check time
4
Therefore, it is recommended to have one command in one line.
Grammar¶
The grammar is expressed in EBNFlike notation:
(*this is a comment*)
A*
means 0 or more occurrences of A.A+
means 1 or more occurrences of A.A % B
meansA (B A)*
and the%
operator has the highest precedence. For example:term % "+" comment
is the same asterm ("+" term)* comment
. The colon
:
in quoted string means that the string can be shortened, e.g."del:ete"
means that any ofdel
,dele
,delet
anddelete
can be used.
The functions that can be used in p_expr
and v_expr
are available
here and here, respectively.
v_expr
contains only a subset of functions from p_expr
(partly,
because we need to calculate symbolical derivatives of v_expr
)
Line structure
line ::= [statement
] [comment
] statement ::= [Dataset+ ":"] [with_opts
]command
% ";" with_opts ::= "w:ith" (Lname "="value
) % "," comment ::= "#" AllChars*
Commands
The kCmd* names in the comments correspond to constants in the code.
command ::= ( "deb:ug" RestOfLine  (*kCmdDebug*) "def:ine"define
 (*kCmdDefine*) "del:ete"delete
 (*kCmdDelete*) "del:ete"delete_points
 (*kCmdDeleteP*) "e:xecute"exec
 (*kCmdExec*) "f:it"fit
 (*kCmdFit*) "g:uess"guess
 (*kCmdGuess*) "i:nfo"info_arg
% "," [redir
]  (*kCmdInfo*) "l:ua" RestOfLine  (*kCmdLua*) "=" RestOfLine  (*kCmdLua*) "pl:ot" [range
] [range
] Dataset* [redir
]  (*kCmdPlot*) "p:rint"print_args
[redir
]  (*kCmdPrint*) "quit"  (*kCmdQuit*) "reset"  (*kCmdReset*) "s:et" (Lname "="value
) % ","  (*kCmdSet*) "sleep"expr
 (*kCmdSleep*) "title" "="filename
 (*kCmdTitle*) "undef:ine" Uname % ","  (*kCmdUndef*) "use" Dataset  (*kCmdUse*) "!" RestOfLine  (*kCmdShell*) Dataset "<"load_arg
 (*kCmdLoad*) Dataset "="dataset_expr
 (*kCmdDatasetTr*) Funcname "="func_rhs
 (*kCmdNameFunc*)param_lhs
"="v_expr
 (*kCmdAssignParam*) Varname "="v_expr
 (*kCmdNameVar*) Varname "=" "copy" "("var_id
")"  (*kCmdNameVar*)model_id
("=""+=")model_rhs
 (*kCmdChangeModel*) (p_attr
"["expr
"]" "="p_expr
) % ","  (*kCmdPointTr*) (p_attr
"="p_expr
) % ","  (*kCmdAllPointsTr*) "M" "="expr
) (*kCmdResizeP*)
Other rules
define ::= Uname "(" (Lname [ "="v_expr
]) % "," ")" "=" (v_expr
component_func
% "+"  "x" "<"v_expr
"?"component_func
":"component_func
) component_func ::= Uname "("v_expr
% "," ")" delete ::= (Varname func_id
 Dataset  "file"filename
) % "," delete_points ::= "("p_expr
")" exec ::=filename
 "!" RestOfLine  "=" RestOfLine fit ::= [Number] [Dataset*]  "undo"  "redo"  "history" Number  "clear_history" guess ::= [Funcname "="] Uname ["(" (Lname "="v_expr
) % "," ")"] [range
] info_arg ::= ...TODO print_args ::= [("all"  ("if"p_expr
":")] (p_expr
 QuotedString  "title"  "filename") % "," redir ::= (">"">>")filename
value ::= (Lname  QuotedString expr
) (*value type depends on the option*) model_rhs ::= "0" func_id
func_rhs
model_id
 "copy" "("model_id
")" func_rhs ::= Uname "(" ([Lname "="]v_expr
) % "," ")"  "copy" "("func_id
")" load_arg ::=filename
Lname*  "." p_attr ::= ("X"  "Y"  "S"  "A") model_id ::= [Dataset "."] ("F""Z") func_id ::= Funcname model_id
"[" Number "]" param_lhs ::= Funcname "." Lname model_id
"[" (Number  "*") "]" "." Lname var_id ::= Varname func_id
"." Lname range ::= "[" [expr
] ":" [expr
] "]" filename ::= QuotedString  NonblankString
Mathematical expressions
expr ::= expr_or ? expr_or : expr_or
expr_or ::= expr_and % "or"
expr_and ::= expr_not % "and"
expr_not ::= "not" expr_not  comparison
comparison ::= arith % ("<"">""=="">=""<=""!=")
arith ::= term % ("+""")
term ::= factor % ("*""/")
factor ::= ('+''') factor  power
power ::= atom ['**' factor]
atom ::= Number  "true"  "false"  "pi" 
math_func  braced_expr  ?others?
math_func ::= "sqrt" "(" expr ")" 
"gamma" "(" expr ")" 
...
braced_expr ::= "{" [Dataset+ ":"] p_expr
"}"
The atom
rule also accepts some fityk expressions, such as $variable,
%function.parameter, %function(expr), etc.
p_expr
and v_expr
are similar to expr
,
but they use additional variables in the atom
rule.
p_expr
recognizes n
, M
, x
, y
, s
, a
, X
, Y
,
S
and A
. All of them but n
and M
can be indexed
(e.g. x[4]
). Example: (x+x[n1])/2
.
v_expr
uses all unknown names (Lname
) as variables
(example: a+b*x^2
).
Only a subset of functions (math_func
) from expr
is supported.
The tilde (~
) can be used to create simplevariables (~5
),
optionally with a domain in square brackets (~5[1:6]
).
Since v_expr
is used to define variables and userdefined functions,
the program calculates symbolically derivatives of v_expr
.
That is why not all the function from expr
are supported
(they may be added in the future).
dataset_expr
supports very limited set of operators and a few functions
that take Dataset token as argument (example: @0  shirley_bg(@0)
).
Lexer
Below, some of the tokens produced by the fityk lexer are defined.
The lexer is contextdependend: NonblankString
and RestOfLine
are produced only when they are expected in the grammar.
Uname
is used only for function types (Gaussian)
and pseudoparameters (%f.Area).
Dataset ::= "@"(Digit+"+""*") Varname ::= "$" Lname Funcname ::= "%" Lname QuotedString ::= "'" (AllChars  "'")* "'" Lname ::= (LowerCase  "_") (LowerCase  Digit  "_")* Uname ::= UpperCase AlphaNum+ Number ::= ?number read by strtod()? NonblankString ::= (AllChars  (WhiteSpace  ";"  "#" ))* RestOfLine ::= AllChars*
Fityk library API¶
Fityk comes with embedded Lua interpreter and this language
is used in this section. The API for other supported languages is similar.
Lua communicates with Fityk using object F
of type Fityk
.
To call the methods listed below use F:method()
, for example
F:get_dof()
(not Fityk.get_dof()
).
Note
Other supported languages include C++, C, Python, Perl, Ruby and Java. Except for C, all APIs are similar.
Unlike in builtin Lua, in other cases it is necessary to create
an instance of the Fityk class first. Then you use this object
in the same way as F
is used below.
The fityk.h header file is the best reference.
Additionally, C++ and Python have access to functions from
the ui_api.h header. These functions are used in command line
versions of fityk (cfityk
or its equivalent – samples/cfityk.py
).
Examples of scripts in all the listed languages and in the samples directory.
Here is the most general function:

Fityk.
execute
(cmd)¶ Executes a fityk command. Example:
F:execute("fit")
.
The %
operator for the string type is preset to support Pythonlike
formatting:
= "%d pigs" % 3
= "%d %s" % {3, "pigs"}
Input / output¶

Fityk.
input
(prompt)¶ Query user. In the CLI user is asked for input in the command line, and in the GUI in a popup box. As a special case, if the prompt contains string “[y/n]” the GUI shows Yes/No buttons instead of text entry.
Example: TODO

Fityk.
out
(s)¶ Print string in the output area. The
print()
function in builtin Lua is redefined to do the same.
Settings¶

Fityk.
set_option_as_string
(opt, val)¶ Set option opt to value val. Equivalent of fityk command
set opt=val
.

Fityk.
set_option_as_number
(opt, val)¶ Set option opt to numeric value val.

Fityk.
get_option_as_string
(opt)¶ Returns value of opt (string).

Fityk.
get_option_as_number
(opt)¶ Returns value of opt (real number).
Data¶

Fityk.
load
(spec[, d])¶ Load data to @*d* slot. The first argument is either a string with path or LoadSpec struct that apart from the
path
has also the following optional members:x_col
,y_col
,sig_col
,blocks
,format
,options
. The meaning of these parameters is the same as described in Loading Data.

Fityk.
load_data
(d, xx, yy, sigmas[, title])¶ Load data to @*d* slot. xx and yy must be numeric arrays of the same size, sigmas must either be empty or have the same size. title is an optional data title (string).

Fityk.
add_point
(x, y, sigma[, d])¶ Add one data point ((x, y) with std. dev. set to sigma) to an existing dataset d. If d is not specified, the default dataset is used.
Example:
F:add_point(30, 7.5, 1)
.

Fityk.
get_dataset_count
()¶ Returns number of datasets (n >= 1).

Fityk.
get_default_dataset
()¶ Returns default dataset. Default dataset is set by the “use @n” command.

Fityk.
get_data
([d])¶ Returns points for dataset d.
 in C++ – returns vector<Point>
 in Lua – userdata with arraylike methods, indexed from 0.
Each point has 4 properties:
x
,y
,sigma
(real numbers) andis_active
(bool).Example:
points = F:get_data() for i = 0, #points1 do p = points[i] if p.is_active then print(i, p.x, p.y, p.sigma) end end
1 4.24 1.06 1 2 6.73 1.39 1 3 8.8 1.61 1 ...
General Info¶

Fityk.
get_info
(s[, d])¶ Returns output of the fityk
info
command as a string. If d is not specified, the default dataset is used (the dataset is relevant for few arguments of theinfo
command).Example:
F:get_info("history")
– returns a multiline string containing all fityk commands issued in this session.

Fityk.
calculate_expr
(s[, d])¶ Returns output of the fityk
print
command as a number. If d is not specified, the default dataset is used.Example:
F:calculate_expr("argmax(y)", 0)
.

Fityk.
get_view_boundary
(side)¶ Get coordinates of the plotted rectangle, which is set by the
plot
command. Return numeric value corresponding to given side, which should be a letterL
(eft),R
(ight),T
(op) orB
(ottom).
Model info¶

Fityk.
get_parameter_count
()¶ Returns number of simplevariables (parameters that can be fitted)

Fityk.
all_parameters
()¶ Returns array of simplevariables.
 in C++ – vector<double>
 in Lua – userdata with arraylike methods, indexed from 0.

Fityk.
all_variables
()¶ Returns array of all defined variables.
 in C++ – vector<Var*>
 in Lua – userdata with arraylike methods, indexed from 0.
Example:
variables = F:all_variables() for i = 0, #variables1 do v = variables[i] print(i, v.name, v:value(), v.domain.lo, v.domain.hi, v:gpos(), v:is_simple()) end
Var.is_simple()
returns true for simplevariables.Var.gpos()
returns position of the variable in the global array of parameters (Fityk.all_parameters()), or 1 for compound variables.

Fityk.
get_variable
(name)¶ Returns variable $name.

Fityk.
all_functions
()¶ Returns array of functions.
 in C++ – vector<Func*>
 in Lua – userdata with arraylike methods, indexed from 0.
Example:
f = F:all_functions()[0]  first functions print(f.name, f:get_template_name())  _1 Gaussian print(f:get_param(0), f:get_param(1))  height center print("$" .. f:var_name("height"))  $_4 print("center:", f:get_param_value("center"))  center: 24.72235945525 print("f(25)=", f:value_at(25))  f(25)= 4386.95533969

Fityk.
get_function
(name)¶ Return the function with given name, or NULL if there is no such function.
Example:
f = F:get_function("_1") print("f(25)=", f:value_at(25))  f(25)= 4386.95533969

Fityk.
get_components
(d[, fz])¶ Returns %functions used in dataset d. If fz is
Z
, returns zeroshift functions.Example:
func = F:get_components(1)[3]  get 4th (index 3) function in @1 print(func)  <Func %_6> vname = func:var_name("hwhm") print(vname)  _21 v = get_variable(vname) print(v, v:value())  <Var $_21> 0.1406587

Fityk.
get_model_value
(x[, d])¶ Returns the value of the model for dataset
@
d at x.
Fit statistics¶

Fityk.
get_wssr
([d])¶ Returns WSSR (weighted sum of squared residuals).

Fityk.
get_ssr
([d])¶ Returns SSR (sum of squared residuals).

Fityk.
get_rsquared
([d])¶ Returns Rsquared.

Fityk.
get_dof
([d])¶ Returns the number of degrees of freedom (#points  #parameters).

Fityk.
get_covariance_matrix
([d])¶ Returns covariance matrix.
Examples in Lua¶
Show how the peak center moves between datasets:
 file listmax.lua
prev_x = nil
for n = 0, F:get_dataset_count()1 do
local path = F:get_info("filename", n)
local filename = string.match(path, "[^/\\]+$") or ""
 local x = F:calculate_expr("argmax(y)", n)
local x = F:calculate_expr("F[0].center", n)
s = string.format("%s: max at x=%.4f", filename, x)
if prev_x ~= nil then
s = s .. string.format(" (%+.4f)", xprev_x)
end
prev_x = x
print(s)
end
=> exec listmax.lua
frame000.dat: max at x=0.0197
frame001.dat: max at x=0.0209 (0.0012)
frame002.dat: max at x=0.0216 (0.0007)
frame003.dat: max at x=0.0224 (0.0008)
Write to file values of the model F(x) at chosen x’s (in this example x = 0, 1.5, 3, ... 150):
 file tabularf.lua
file = io.open("output.dat", "w")
for x = 0, 150, 1.5 do
file:write(string.format("%g\t%g\n", x, F:get_model_value(x)))
end
file:close()
=> exec tabularf.lua
=> !head 5 output.dat
0 12.1761
1.5 12.3004
3 10.9096
4.5 9.12635
6 8.27044
All the Rest¶
Settings¶
The syntax is simple:
set option = value
changes the option,info set option
shows the current value,info set
lists all available options.
In the GUI
the options can be set in a dialog (
).The GUI configuration (colors, fonts, etc.) is changed in a different way (
) and is not covered here.It is possible to change the value of the option temporarily:
with option1=value1 [,option2=value2] command args...
For example:
info set fitting_method # show the current fitting method
set fitting_method = nelder_mead_simplex # change the method
# change the method only for this one fit command
with fitting_method = levenberg_marquardt fit
# and now the default method is back NelderMead
# multiple commaseparated options can be given
with fitting_method=levenberg_marquardt, verbosity=quiet fit
The list of available options:
 autoplot
 See autoplot.
 cwd
 Current working directory or empty string if it was not set explicitely. Affects relative paths.
 default_sigma
 Default y standard deviation. See Standard Deviation (or Weight).
Possible values:
sqrt
max(y^{1/2}, 1) andone
(1).  domain_percent
 See the section about variables.
 epsilon
 The ε value used to test floatingpoint numbers a and b for equality (it is well known that due to rounding errors the equality test for two numbers should have some tolerance, and the tolerance should be tailored to the application): a−b < ε. Default value: 10^{12}. You may need to decrease it when working with very small numbers.
 fit_replot
 Refresh the plot when fitting (0/1).
 fitting_method
 See Fitting Related Commands.
 function_cutoff
 See description in the chapter about model.
 height_correction
 See Guessing Initial Parameters.
 lm_*
 Setting to tune the LevenbergMarquardt fitting method.
 logfile
 String. File where the commands are logged. Empty – no logging.
 log_output
 When logfile is set, log output together with input (0/1).
 max_fitting_time
 Stop fitting when this number of seconds of processor time is exceeded. See Fitting Related Commands.
 max_wssr_evaluations
 See Fitting Related Commands.
 nm_*
 Setting to tune the NelderMead downhill simplex fitting method.
 numeric_format
 Format of numbers printed by the
info
command. It takes as a value a format string, the same assprintf()
in the C language. For exampleset numeric_format='%.3f'
changes the precision of numbers to 3 digits after the decimal point. Default value:%g
.  on_error
 Action performed on error. If the option is set to
stop
(default) and the error happens in script, the script is stopped. Other possible values arenothing
(do nothing) andexit
(finish program – ensures that no error can be overlooked).  pseudo_random_seed
 Some fitting methods and functions, such as
randnormal
in data expressions use a pseudorandom number generator. In some situations one may want to have repeatable and predictable results of the fitting, e.g. to make a presentation. Seed for a new sequence of pseudorandom numbers can be set using the optionpseudo_random_seed
. If it is set to 0, the seed is based on the current time and a sequence of pseudorandom numbers is different each time.  refresh_period
 During timeconsuming computations (like fitting) user interface can remain not changed for this time (in seconds). This option was introduced, because on one hand frequent refreshing of the program’s window notably slows down fitting, and on the other hand irresponsive program is a frustrating experience.
 verbosity
 Possible values: 1 (silent), 0 (normal), 1 (verbose), 2 (very verbose).
 width_correction
 See Guessing Initial Parameters.
Data View¶
The command plot
controls the region of the graph that is displayed:
plot [[xrange] yrange] [@n, ...]
xrange and yrange has syntax [min:max]
. If the boundaries
are skipped, they are automatically determined using the given datasets.
In the GUI
there is hardly ever a need to use this command directly.
The CLI version on Unix systems visualizes the data using the gnuplot
program, which has similar syntax for the plot range.
Examples:
plot [20.4:50] [10:20] # show x from 20.4 to 50 and y from 10 to 20
plot [20.4:] # x from 20.4 to the end,
# y range will be adjusted to encompass all data
plot # all data will be shown
The values of the options autoplot
and fit_replot
change the automatic plotting behaviour. By default, the plot is
refreshed automatically after changing the data or the model (autoplot=1
).
It is also possible to replot the model when fitting, to show the progress
(see the options fit_replot
and refresh_period
).
Redirecting the plot command to a file saves a plot as an image:
plot [20.4:50] [10:20] > myplot.png
For now, it works only in fityk (not cfityk) and is less flexible than
.Information Display¶
First, there is an option verbosity
which sets the amount of messages displayed when executing commands.
There are three commands that print explicitely requested information:
info
– used to show preformatted informationprint
– mainly used to output numbers (expression values)debug
– used for testing the program itself
The output of info
and print
can be redirected to a file:
info args > filename # truncate the file
info args >> filename # append to the file
info args > 'filename' # the filename can (and sometimes must) be in quotes
The redirection can create a file, so there is also a command to delete it:
delete file filename
info¶
The following info
arguments are recognized:
 TypeName – definition
 $variable_name – formula and value
 %function_name – formula
F
– the list of functions in FZ
– the list of functions in Zcompiler
– options used when compiling the programconfidence level @n
– confidence limits for given confidence levelcov @n
– covariance matrixdata
– number of points, data filename and titledataset_count
– number of datasetserrors @n
– estimated uncertainties of parametersfilename
– dataset filenamefit
– goodness of fitfit_history
– info about recorded parameter setsformula
– full formula of the modelfunctions
– the list of %functionsgnuplot_formula
– full formula of the model, gnuplot styleguess
– peakdetection and linear regression infoguess [from:to]
– the same, but in the given rangehistory
– the list of all the command issued in this sessionhistory [m:n]
– selected commands from the historyhistory_summary
– the summary of command historymodels
– script that reconstructs all variables, functions and modelspeaks
– formatted list of parameters of functions in F.peaks_err
– the same as peaks + uncertaintiesprop
%function_name – parameters of the functionrefs
$variable_name – references to the variableset
– the list of settingsset
option – the current value of the optionsimplified_formula
– simplified formulasimplified_gnuplot_formula
– simplified formula, gnuplot stylestate
– generates a script that can reproduce the current state of the program. The scripts embeds all datasets.title
– dataset titletypes
– the list of function typesvariables
– the list of variablesversion
– version numberview
– boundaries of the visualized rectangle
Both info state
and info history
can be used to restore the current
session.
In the GUI
and .
print¶
The print command is followed by a commaseparated list of expressions and/or strings:
=> p pi, pi^2, pi^3
3.14159 9.8696 31.0063
=> with numeric_format='%.15f' print pi
3.141592653589793
=> p '2+3 =', 2+3
2+3 = 5
The other valid arguments are filename
and title
.
They are useful for listing the same values for multiple datasets, e.g.:
=> @*: print filename, F[0].area, F[0].area.error
print
can also print a list where each line corresponds to one data point,
as described in the section Exporting Data.
As an exception, print expression > filename
does not work
if the filename is not enclosed in single quotes. That is because the parser
interprets >
as a part of the expression.
Just use quotes (print 2+3 > 'tmp.dat'
).
debug¶
Only a few debug
subcommands are documented here:
der
mathematicfunction – shows derivatives:=> debug der sin(a) + 3*exp(b/a) f(a, b) = sin(a)+3*exp(b/a) df / d a = cos(a)3*exp(b/a)*b/a^2 df / d b = 3*exp(b/a)/a
df
x – compares the symbolic and numerical derivatives of F in x.lex
command – the list of tokens from the Fityk lexerparse
command – show the command as stored after parsingexpr
expression – VM code from the expressionrd
– derivatives for all variables%function
– bytecode, if available$variable
– derivatives
Other Commands¶
reset
– reset the sessionsleep
sec – makes the program wait sec seconds.quit
– works as expected; if it is found in a script it quits the program, not only the script.!
– commands that start with!
are passed (without the!
) to thesystem()
call (i.e. to the operating system).
Starting fityk and cfityk¶
On startup, the program runs a script from the
$HOME/.fityk/init
file (on MS Windows XP:
C:\Documents and Settings\USERNAME\.fityk\init
).
Following this, the program executes command passed with the cmd
option, if given, and processes command line arguments:
 if the argument starts with
=>
, the string following=>
is regarded as a command and executed (otherwise, it is regarded as a filename),  if the filename has extension ”.fit” or the file begins with a “# Fityk” string, it is assumed to be a script and is executed,
 otherwise, it is assumed to be a data file; columns and data blocks can be specified in the normal way, see Loading Data.
There are also other parameters to the CLI and GUI versions of the program. Option “h” (“/h” on MS Windows) gives the full listing:
wojdyr@ubu:~/fityk/src$ ./fityk h
Usage: fityk \[h] \[V] \[c <str>] \[I] \[r] \[script or data file...]
h, help show this help message
V, version output version information and exit
c, cmd=<str> script passed in as string
g, config=<str> choose GUI configuration
I, noinit don't process $HOME/.fityk/init file
r, reorder reorder data (50.xy before 100.xy)
wojdyr@ubu:~/foo$ cfityk h
Usage: cfityk \[h] \[V] \[c <str>] \[script or data file...]
h, help show this help message
V, version output version information and exit
c, cmd=<str> script passed in as string
I, noinit don't process $HOME/.fityk/init file
n, noplot disable plotting (gnuplot)
q, quit don't enter interactive shell
The example of noninteractive using CLI version on Linux:
wojdyr@ubu:~/foo$ ls *.rdf
dat_a.rdf dat_r.rdf out.rdf
wojdyr@ubu:~/foo$ cfityk q I "=> set verbosity=1, autoplot=0" \
> *.rdf "=> @*: print min(x if y > 0)"
in @0 dat_a: 1.8875
in @1 dat_r: 1.5105
in @2 out: 1.8305